HOME | Contact Us

Journal Archive

Journal of Asian Architecture and Building Engineering - Vol. 11 , No. 2

[ Environmental Engineering ]
Journal of Asian Architecture and Building Engineering - Vol. 11, No. 2, pp.407-414
ISSN: 1346-7581 (Print) 1347-2852 (Online)
Print publication date 30 Nov 2012
Received 05 Oct 2011 Accepted 24 Jul 2012

Reduction of Energy Consumption by AC due to Air Tightness and Ventilation Strategy in Residences in Hot and Humid Climates
Tomoko Uno*, 1 ; Shuichi Hokoi2 ; Sri Nastiti N. Ekasiwi3 ; Noor Hanita Abdul Majid4
1Lecturer, Department of Architecture, Mukogawa Women's University, Japan
2Professor, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Japan
3Lecturer, Department of Architecture, Institute Technology Sepuluh Nopember, Indonesia
4Associate Professor, Department of Architecture, International Islamic University Malaysia, Malaysia

Correspondence to : *Tomoko Uno, Lecturer, Department of Architecture, Mukogawa Women's University, 1-13, Tozaki, Nishinomiya, Hyogo, 663-8121, Japan Tel: +81-798-67-4501 E-mail: uno_tomo@mukogawa-u.ac.jp


This paper proposes strategies for reducing energy consumption for cooling in residences in hot and humid climates. Based on the results of fieldwork measurements and questionnaire surveys, a simulation of indoor thermal environments in consideration of air conditioner operation was carried out, in order to evaluate energy consumption by air conditioners. This simulation program takes into account both heat and moisture transfer in building materials. In order to simplify the calculation and due to lack of measurement of ventilation volumes, the ventilation volumes are assumed as constant values depending on open or closed windows. The combined effects of building air-tightness and the opening time of windows for ventilation were examined. Making an entire building airtight results in a small reduction in energy consumption, as the air-conditioned area increases. Meanwhile, simply making an air-conditioned room airtight is more effective for reducing cooling energy consumption. Irrespective of this, nighttime ventilation of non-air-conditioned spaces is quite effective in reducing sensible cooling load. Thus, introduction of not only a high degree of insulation but also air-tightness along with well controlled ventilation is required to achieve energy savings in hot and humid climates.

Keywords: windows and doors opening period (ventilation operating time), air-tightness, energy consumption for air conditioners, hot and humid climate

1. International Energy Agency. (2000) IEA Energy Balances of Non-OECD Countries.
2. Statistics Indonesia http://www2.bps.go.id/.
3. Wang, L., et al. (2007) Facade design optimization for naturally ventilated residential buildings in Singapore, Energy and Buildings, Vol. 39, Issue 8, pp.954-961.
4. Wang, L., and Wong, N. H. (2005) The impacts of ventilation strategies and façade on indoor thermal environment for natural ventilated buildings in Singapore, Building and Environment, Vol. 42, Issue 12, pp.4006-4015.
5. G. Carrilho da Graça, Q. Chen, L. R. Glicksman, and L. K. Norford, (2002) Simulation of wind-driven ventilative cooling system for an apartment building in Beijing and Shanghai, Energy and Buildings, Vol. 34, Issue 1, pp.1-11.
6. Murakami, S., et al. (2004) Design of a porous-type residential building model with low environmental load in hot and humid Asia, Energy and Buildings, Vol. 36, Issue 12, pp.1181-1189.
7. K.W. Mui, and L.T. Wong. (2007) Neutral temperature in subtropical climates - A field survey in air-conditioned offices, Building and Environment, Vol. 42, Issue 2, pp.699-706.
8. Kubota, T., and S. Ahmad. (2006) A field survey on usage of AC and windows in terraced house areas in Johor Bahru city, Journal of Environmental Engineering (Transactions of AIJ), Vol. 73, Number 608, pp.81-87.
9. Uno, T., et al. (2001) Survey on thermal environment in residential houses in Surabaya, Indonesia - Use of AC, JAABE, Vol. 2, No. 2, pp.15-21.
10. Uno T., et al. 2003. A survey on thermal environment in residential houses in Surabaya, Indonesia, Journal of Architecture, Planning and Environmental Engineering, Architectural Institute of Japan, No.564, pp.17-24. (in Japanese).
11. Nastiti S. N. E. (2007) Passive method for improving indoor thermal environment for residential buildings in hot-humid region (Indonesia), Ph. D Thesis submitted to Kyoto University.
12. Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA). (2001) Monthly Report: From January to December 2001, Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA). (in Japanese).
13. Juanda Meteorological station, 2001.
14. ASHRAE handbook: Fundamentals. 2001. Physical Properties of Material, Chapter 38.
15. Matsumoto M., et al. 1997. An Analysis of Coupled Heat and Moisture Transfer in Buildings, Considering the Influence of Radiation Heat Transfer, ASHRAE Transactions, Vol.103, Part 1, pp.573-583.
16. Uno, T., et al. (2004) Analysis of air-conditioned indoor thermal environment under hot and humid climate, 6th International Conference on Energy for Buildings, pp.524-539.
17. Ito, K., et al. (1985) Multiobjective optimal design of a heat pump system by considering partial load for air-conditioning, Transactions of the Society of Heating, Air-Conditioning and Sanitary Engineers of Japan, The Society of Heating, Air- Conditioning and Sanitary Engineers of Japan, No.29, 51-61. (in Japanese).
18. S. Hokoi, et al. (2002) Architectural Environmental Engineering II, Asakura Publishing Co., Ltd., 4-8. (in Japanese).