HOME | Contact Us

Current Issue

Journal of Asian Architecture and Building Engineering - Vol. 15 , No. 3

[ Architectural/Urban Plannin g and Design ]
Journal of Asian Architecture and Building Engineering - Vol. 15, No. 3, pp.527-534
ISSN: 1346-7581 (Print) 1347-2852 (Online)
Print publication date 30 Sep 2016
Received 05 Oct 2015 Accepted 11 Jul 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3130/jaabe.15.527

The Effects of Visibility on Fear of Crime in Schools' Interior Environments
Soyeon Lee1 ; Mikyoung Ha*, 2
1Ph.D., Department of Interior Architecture and Built Environment, Yonsei University, Korea
2Professor, Department of Interior Architecture and Built Environment, Yonsei University, Korea

Correspondence to : *Mikyoung Ha, Professor, Department of Interior Architecture and Built Environment, Yonsei University, 417 Samsung Hall 134 Sinchon-Dong, Seodaemun-Gu, Seoul, 120-749, Korea Tel: +82-2-2123-3135 Fax: +82-2-2123-8662 E-mail: mkha@yonsei.ac.kr

Funding Information ▼

Abstract

In any given environment, visibility is a critical element that affects fear of crime. This study provides empirical evidence of the effects of visibility on fear of crime within elementary schools using a quantitative analysis. Spots in which children felt fear were identified, and their characteristics were analyzed according to the four visibility dimensions of: visual connectivity and visual integration, each with and without visible distance restrictions. One finding was that fear of crime was high in the areas where visibility was either extremely low or extremely high, resulting in a relationship that can be expressed as a U-shaped graph. In addition, fear of crime was associated with visibility in relation to human behaviors as well as built environments. Finally, the visibility distance was also found to be an important element affecting fear of crime.


Keywords: fear of crime, visibility, school interior environment, space syntax, geographic information system (GIS)

References
1. Aliu, I. R. & Adebayo, A. (2013) Establishing a Nexus Between Residential Quality and Health Risk: An Exploratory Analytical Approach. Indoor and Built Environment, 22 (6), pp.852-863.
2. Andrews, M. & Gatersleben, B. (2010) Variations in perceptions of danger, fear and preference in a simulated natural environment. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 30 (4), pp.473-481.
3. Arneill, A. B. & Devlin, A. S. (2002) Perceived quality of care: The influence of the waiting room environment. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 22 (4), pp.345-360.
4. Batty, M. (2001) Exploring isovist fields: space and shape in architectural and urban morphology. Environment and Planning B, 28 (1), pp.123-150.
5. Cox, J. M. & Davison, A. (2005) The visual analogue scale as a tool for self-reporting of subjective phenomena in the medical radiation sciences. The Radiographer, 52 (1), 22-4.
6. Desyllas, J. et al. (2003) Modelling natural surveillance. Environment and Planning B, 30 (5), pp.643-656.
7. Desyllas, J. & Duxbury, E. (2001) Axial maps and visibility graph analysis. In: Proceedings, 3rd International Space Syntax Symposium, 27.1-27.13.
8. Devlin, A. S. (2008) Judging a Book by Its Cover Medical Building Facades and Judgments of Care. Environment and Behavior, 40 (3), pp.307-329.
9. Ferraro, K. F. & Grange, R. L. (1987) The measurement of fear of crime. Sociological inquiry, 57 (1), pp.70-97.
10. Fisher, B. S. & Nasar, J. L. (1992) Fear of crime in relation to three exterior site features. Environment and Behavior, 24 (1), pp.35-65.
11. Garofalo, J. et al. (1987) School-related victimizations among adolescents: An analysis of National Crime Survey (NCS) narratives. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 3 (4), pp.321-338.
12. Ha, M. (2011) Design Considerations to Provide Security-Enhanced Schools for Teenagers. Review of Architecture and Building Science, 55 (8), pp.33-36.
13. Hillier, B. (2012) Studying cities to learn about minds: some possible implications of space syntax for spatial cognition. Environment and Planning B, 39 (1), p.12.
14. Hong, Y. (2008) Juvenile victimization in Korea, Seoul, Korea, Institute of Criminology.
15. Kautt, P. M. & Roncek, D. W. (2007) Schools as Criminal "Hot Spots" Primary, Secondary, and Beyond. Criminal Justice Review, 32 (4), pp.339-357.
16. Kishimoto, T. & Taguchi, M. (2014) Spatial Configuration of Japanese Elementary Schools: Analyses by the Space Syntax and Evaluation by School Teachers. Journal of Asian Architecture and Building Engineering, 13 (2), pp.373-380.
17. Lee, S. & Ha, M. (2015) The Duality of Visibility: Does Visibility Increase or Decrease the Fear of Crime in Schools′ Exterior Environments? Journal of Asian Architecture and Building Engineering, 14 (1), pp.145-152.
18. Lee, S. et al. (2012) Criminal Spots on the Way Home from School A Case Study of Middle Schools in the Gangseo District. Journal of Asian Architecture and Building Engineering, 11 (1), pp.63-70.
19. Loewen, L. J. et al. (1993) Perceived safety from crime in the urban environment. Journal of environmental psychology, 13 (4), pp.323-331.
20. Loukaitou-Sideris, A. et al. (2001) Measuring the effects of built environment on bus stop crime. Environment and Planning B, 28 (2), pp.255-280.
21. Lu, Y. & Zimring, C. (2012) Can Intensive Care Staff See Their Patients? An Improved Visibility Analysis Methodology. Environment and Behavior, 44 (6), pp.861-876.
22. McDonald, J. H. (2009) Handbook of biological statistics, Sparky House Publishing Baltimore.
23. Nasar, J. L. & Fisher, B. (1993) 'Hot spots' of fear and crime: a multi-method investigation. Journal of environmental psychology, 13 (3), pp.187-206.
24. Park, H. & Ha, M. (2012) A Study on the Classroom Design in Middle School for Preventing School Violence. Journal of Korean Institute of Interior Design, 21 (3), pp.163-173.
25. Park, S. et al. (2004) SPSS: ver. SPSS 12K, Seoul, Hannarae.
26. Pinelo, J. & Turner, A. (2010) Introduction to UCL Depthmap 10.
27. Roman, C. G. (2002) Schools as generators of crime: routine activities and the sociology of place. Villanova University.
28. Salmon, G. et al. (1998) Bullying in schools: self reported anxiety, depression, and self esteem in secondary school children. BMj, 317 (7163), pp.924-925.
29. Spreiregen, P. D. (1965) Urban Design: The Architecture of Towns and Cities, McGraw-Hill.
30. Turner, A. (2001) Depthmap: A program to perform visibility graph analysis. In: Proceedings of the 3rd Space Syntax Symposium.
31. Turner, A. (2003) Analysing the visual dynamics of spatial morphology. Environment and Planning B, 30 (5), pp.657-676.
32. Turner, A. (2004) Depthmap 4: a researcher's handbook, Bartlett School of Graduate Studies, UCL, London. http//www.vr.ucl.ac.uk.
33. Turner, A. et al. (2001) From isovists to visibility graphs: a methodology for the analysis of architectural space. Environment Planning B, 28 (1), pp.103-121.
34. Turner, A. & Penn, A. (1999) Making isovists syntactic: isovist integration analysis. In: 2nd International Symposium on Space Syntax, Brasilia, Citeseer.
35. Wang, K. & Taylor, R. B. (2006) Simulated walks through dangerous alleys: Impacts of features and progress on fear. Journal of environmental psychology, 26 (4), pp.269-283.
36. Yoo, S. & Ha, M. (2011) A Study on Middle School Environmental Planning for Preventing School Violence - Based on Students' Perceptions of Violence Experience and Fear for Violence in Schools. Journal of Korea Design Knowledge 20, pp.327-336.