[ Environmental Engineering ]
Journal of Asian Architecture and Building Engineering - Vol. 7, No. 2, pp.395-402
ISSN: 1346-7581 (Print) 1347-2852 (Online)
Print publication date 30 Nov 2008
Received 08 Apr 2008 Accepted 30 Jul 2008

Effects of Energy Saving Measures for Existing Urban Residential Buildings Based on Thermal Simulation and Site Investigation of Energy Consumption

Jinlong Ouyang1 ; Jian Ge*, 2 ; Jiang Lu3 ; Kazunori Hokao4 ; Tingting Shen5
1Doctor Student, Department of Civil Engineering, Saga University Japan
2Associate Professor, Department of Architecture, Zhejiang University China
3Associate Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Zhejiang University of Science and Technology China
4Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Saga University Japan
5Master Student, Department of Architecture, Zhejiang University China

Correspondence to: *Ge Jian, Associate Professor, Department of Architecture, Zhejiang University Zijingang Campus, Hangzhou, 310058 China Tel: +86-571-88206267 Fax: +86-571-88206264 E-mail: ow761202@yahoo.com


This is one of two papers that predict the effects of energy saving renovation measures for existing urban residential buildings. The previous paper predicted such effects based on thermal simulation, but the simulative outputs are not sufficiently convincing. So in this paper, the measures' effects will be further analyzed based on the factual electricity consumption from site investigation. Firstly, the monthly electricity consumption of the subject building was investigated in 2007/2008. Then, the factual heating and cooling loads were distinguished through climate analysis. Finally, assuming that the relative energy saving effects of the measures are the same in thermal simulation and in fact, the simulative energy saving effects were revised by applying the factual heating and cooling loads, followed by CO2 emission and cost for a 40-year residual life span. The results show that the simulative outputs were too exaggerated, and must be revised based on factual electricity consumption. From the viewpoint of reducing energy use and CO2 emission, it is worth renovating existing residential buildings with energy saving measures, however, the economic benefits following revision are negative because of the too cheap electricity price in China. Therefore the government should provide subsidies for the energy saving renovations of buildings.


renovation measure, factual electricity consumption, site investigation, relative energy saving effect, revise


  • J. Ouyang et al., T. (2008) The reduction potential of energy consumption, CO2 emissions and cost of existing urban residential buildings in Hangzhou city, China, Journal of Asian Architecture and Building Engineering, 7(1), pp.139-146.
  • O. Arslan and R. Kose, T. (2006) Thermo economic optimization of insulation thickness considering condensed vapor in buildings. Energy and Buildings, 38 (12), pp.1400-1408.
  • H. Tommerup and S. Svendsen, T. (2006) Energy savings in Danish residential building stock. Energy and Buildings, 38 (6), pp.618-626.
  • A. Papadopoulos et al., T. (2002) Feasibility of energy saving renovation measures in urban buildings: The impact of energy prices and the acceptable pay back time criterion. Energy and Buildings, 34 (5), pp.455-466.
  • T. Siller, T. (2007) Long-term energy savings and greenhouse gas emission reductions in the Swiss residential sector. Energy Policy, 35 (1), pp.529-539.
  • M. Jakob, T. (2006) Marginal costs and co-benefits of energy efficiency investments: The case of the Swiss residential sector. Energy Policy, 34 (2), pp.172-187.
  • J. Lam, T. (1998) Climatic and economic influence on residential energy consumption, Energy Conversion and Management, 39(7), pp.623-629.
  • P. Hu et al., T. (2004) Investigation of thermal environment and energy consumption for Hubei residences, Heating Ventilating & Air Conditioning, 34(6), P21-22, 71. (In Chinese).
  • T. Zhong and W. Long, T. (2003) The survey on room air conditioners in Shanghai and the calculation of energy consumption in summer. Building Energy & Environment, l.3, P22-24. (In Chinese).
  • J. Ren et al., T. (2003) Investigation of air conditioning energy consumption in residential buildings in Guangzhou, Wall Material Innovation & Energy Saving in Buildings, 4, P34-37. (In Chinese).
  • Q. Wu, T. (2005) Study on the energy-consumption problem and energy-efficiency technologies of residential buildings in Hangzhou. Dissertation submitted for the Degree of Master of Zhejiang University. (In Chinese).
  • Hangzhou Statistics Bureau, T. (2006) Hangzhou Statistical Yearbook. China Statistical Press. (In Chinese) http://www.hzstats.gov.cn/webapp/more01.aspx?id=0_1_69_.
  • Ministry of Construction P. R. China et al., T. (2001) Design Standard for Energy Efficiency of Residential Buildings in Hot Summer and Cold Winter Zone (JGJ134-2001). Chinese Construction Industry Publication. (In Chinese).
  • Zhejiang Province Architectural Design and Research Institute et al., T. (2003) Design standard for energy efficiency of residential buildings in Zhejiang province (DB33/1015-2003). Chinese Construction Industry Publication. (In Chinese).
  • The climatic bureau of Hangzhou city, T. (2007) Hangzhou city's climatic web. (In Chinese). http://www.hzqx.com/gzhfw/index.asp.
  • Z. Li and Y. Jiang, T. (2006) Investigation methods of air conditioning energy consumption in residential buildings in summer, Heating Ventilating & Air Conditioning, 36(9), 35-37. (In Chinese).
  • P. Lam, T. (2004) Pricing of electricity in China, Energy, 29(2), pp.287-300.
  • B. Wang, T. (2007) An imbalanced development of coal and electricity industries in China, Energy Policy, 35(10), pp.4959-4968.
  • F. Birol and J. Keppler, T (2000) Prices, technology development and the rebound effect, Energy Policy, 28(6-7), pp.457-469.
  • R. Amstalden et al., T (2007) Economic potential of energy efficiency retrofitting in the Swiss residential building sector: The effects of policy instruments and energy price expectations, Energy Policy, 35(3), pp.1819-1829.
  • A. Joelsson and L. Gustavsson, T (2008) Perspective on implementing energy efficiency in existing Swedish detached houses, Energy Policy, 36(1), pp.84-96.
  • L. Huang and M. Tu, T (2007) The impacts of energy prices on energy intensity: Evidence from China, Energy Policy, 35(5), pp.2978-2988.